Dans ce sens, il est également envisageable que le portrait ait été transformé dans un atelier londonien, en ajoutant l'inscription « JEHAN ROY DE FRANCE », pour faire passer le modèle peint pour le roi de France. Effectively, Normandy depended economically more on maritime trade across the English Channel than on river trade on the Seine. Mots clefs La Cerda's fate paralleled that of Edward II of England's Piers Gaveston and John II of Castile's Alvaro de Luna; the position of a royal favourite was a dangerous one. This was done to confuse the enemy, who would do everything possible to capture the sovereign on the field. 3. représentation d'une personne, de son visage, par la peinture, le dessin, la gravure, la photographie, etc. Joanna was the widow of Philip of Burgundy, the deceased heir of that duchy, and the mother of the young Philip I, Duke of Burgundy (1344–61) who became John's stepson and ward. Cependant l'inscription en caractères gothiques « JEHAN ROY DE FRANCE », qui figure au-dessus de lui, semble invalider cette hypothèse. Citations Jean Le Bon - Découvrez 24 citations de Jean Le Bon parmi ses citations extraites de poèmes, de livres, ouvrages et lettres. Accession and rise of the English and the royalty, Meeting with the Avignon Papacy and the King of England, Relations with the Normans and rising tensions. This was guided by political need, as John was determined to prove the legitimacy of his crown, particularly as his reign, like that of his father, was marked by continuing disputes over the Valois claim from both Charles II of Navarre and Edward III of England. [11] La Cerda was given various honours and appointed to the high position of connetable when John became king; he accompanied the king on all his official journeys to the provinces. Selected Works The Art of Portraiture. While John was a prisoner in London, his son Charles became regent and faced several rebellions, which he overcame. In November 1350, King John had Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Eu seized and summarily executed,[8] for reasons that remain unclear, although it was rumoured that he had pledged the English the County of Guînes for his release. Le timbre reproduit le tableau attribué à Girard d'Orléans représentant Jean II le Bon (détrempe à l'œuf sur enduit de plâtre, 60 x 44,5 cm, Paris - Musée du Louvre) Toutefois les quelques témoignages restants, à partir du portrait de Jean le Bon (Paris, Louvre), témoignent de l'excellente qualité atteinte. Il appartient au département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France et se trouve en dépôt au département des peintures du Musée du Louvre. Philip VI, John's father, died on 22 August 1350, and John's coronation as John II, king of France, took place in Reims the following 26 September. -portrait de jean le bon 229 exigé par les États, confondre les personnes du père et du fils en peignant le roi Jean sous les traits du dauphin Charles. Engraved on copper by Nicolas II de Larmessin (1632-1694). Citation de Louis-Auguste Martin ; L'esprit moral du XIX e siècle (1855) Biography Youth. Ce portrait est l'un des premiers portraits peints modernes. John II (French: Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was King of France from 1350 until his death. Dans ce site, j'ai souhaité rassembler un grand nombre de portraits des rois et des empereurs de France , et de leurs proches. Il appartient toujours au Département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France de la BnF et a été mis en dépôt au musée du Louvre en 1925. Le portrait de Jean II le Bon (avant 1350) est le portrait indépendant le plus ancien peint en Occident.Son auteur est anonyme, son sujet est illustre : le roi de France Jean II le Bon (1319-1364 While he waited, the papal legate went back and forth, trying to negotiate a truce between the leaders. He dined with the Black Prince—who had negotiated the Treaty of Brétigny[9]—at Dover Castle, and reached English-held Calais on 8 July.[10]. Son auteur reprend la formule élaborée sous l’Antiquité classique, particulièrement dans la numismatique, quand il campe le modèle en profil absolu, telle une médaille impériale. Jean est de profil, sur un fond entièrement doré. Citation de Jean Le Bon; Les adages français (1557) Le suicide est le courage de l'égoïste faisant bon marché de sa vie comme d'une chose trop peu avantageuse. Initially a marriage with Eleanor of Woodstock, sister of King Edward III of England, was considered, but instead Philip invited John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, to Fontainebleau. He offered his wagon train, which was heavily loaded with loot. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) La Cerda's rise at court excited the jealousy of the French barons, several of whom stabbed him to death in 1354. Le roi semble peint avec un souci de caractérisation physique et un désir d'expressivité remarquables. Vu la rareté des peintures de chevalet du XIVe siècle qui nous sont parvenues, ce tableau serait le plus ancien portrait indépendant peint en France. Duke John met Geoffroy d'Harcourt, to whom the king agreed to return all confiscated goods, even appointing him sovereign captain in Normandy. On 1 July 1363, King John was informed that Louis had escaped. L'œuvre elle-même. Some sources claim that he even offered to return Calais to the French crown. CHARLES V LE SAGE (1337-1380) roi de France (1364-1380). (familier) partie antérieure de la tête humaine, visage (ex. Le portrait de Jean II Le Bon (1319 - 1364), duc de Normandie puis roi de France de 1350 jusqu'à sa mort, inaugure un genre, car c'est la première évocation directe d'un portrait royal, sans tous les accessoires et vu de profil, tel un portrait monétaire. At a time when law and order was breaking down in France and the government was having a hard time raising money for the defence of the realm, his account books during his captivity show that he was purchasing horses, pets, and clothes while maintaining an astrologer and a court band. John's grief on La Cerda's death was overt and public. Though he fought with valor, wielding a large battle-axe, his helmet was knocked off. That night King John dined in the red silk tent of his enemy. Leaving his son Louis of Anjou in Calais as a replacement hostage, John was allowed to return to France to raise the funds. When John was informed that Louis had escaped from captivity, he voluntarily returned to England, where he died in 1364. 3 oct. 2014 - Le 6e centenaire de la mort de Jean II le Bon, roi de France (1319-1364), né au château du Gué de Maulny. On 11 September 1349, John's wife, Bonne of Bohemia (Bonne de Luxembourg), died at the Maubuisson Abbey near Paris, of the Black Death, which was devastating Europe. Eventually, John was taken to the Tower of London. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 21 décembre 2020 à 13:12. Il appartient au département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France et se trouve en dépôt au département des peintures du Musée du Louvre. It was split into two key camps, the counts of Tancarville and the counts of Harcourt, which had been in conflict for generations. Pour obtenir sa libération il faut payer une énorme rançon et donner au roi d'Angleterre tout le sud-ouest du royaume. Contemporaries report that he was quick to get angry and resort to violence, leading to frequent political and diplomatic confrontations. Le portrait de Jean II le Bon est un tableau anonyme de 60 × 44,5 cm. In September the two forces met a few miles southeast of Poitiers. Portrait attribué à Girard d'Orléans: Commentaire: Le timbre reproduit un tableau attribué à Girard d'Orléans représentant Jean II le Bon (tempora à l'œuf sur enduit de plâtre, 60 x 44,5 cm, Paris, Musée du Louvre). In 1354, John's son-in-law and cousin, Charles II of Navarre, who, in addition to his Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees mountains, border between France and Spain, also held extensive lands in Normandy, was implicated in the assassination of the Constable of France, Charles de la Cerda. On 9 February 1350, five months after the death of his first wife, John married Joan I, Countess of Auvergne, in the royal Château de Sainte-Gemme (that no longer exists), at Feucherolles, near Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Jean le Bon est séduit par le projet, il envisage de reconquérir son honneur en croisade contre les Turcs en répondant à l'appel du roi de Chypre, Pierre I er de Lusignan. His council tried to dissuade him, but he persisted, citing reasons of "good faith and honour." The peace did not last between the two, and Charles eventually struck up an alliance with Henry of Grosmont, the first Duke of Lancaster. Cette croisade serait financée par le pape, via les décimes, le roi comptant bien en récupérer une partie pour rembourser sa rançon. He sailed for England that winter and left the impoverished citizens of France again without a king. Ce portrait est celui de Jean II le Bon, roi de France de 1350 à 1364. Portrait attribué à Girard d'Orléans 5. Département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, département des peintures du musée du Louvre, département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, http://www.louvre.fr/oeuvre-notices/jean-ii-le-bon-roi-de-france-1319-1364, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portrait_de_Jean_II_le_Bon&oldid=177877759, Collection de peintures françaises du Louvre, Page pointant vers des bases relatives aux beaux-arts, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. En 1355, la guerre reprend contre les Anglais menés par Édouard, le Prince Noir et, en 1356, Jean II est battu à Poitiers. Geoffroy d'Harcourt raised troops against the king, rallying a number of nobles protective of their autonomy and against royal interference. Son règne est considéré comme le plus mauvais de l’histoire de France. Nevertheless, in order to have a strategic ally against the English in Gascony, John signed the Treaty of Mantes with Charles on 22 February 1354. Joanna, his second wife, was crowned queen of France at the same time.[7]. In an exchange of hostages, which included his second son Louis, Duke of Anjou, John was released from captivity to raise funds for his ransom. He enjoyed literature and was patron to painters and musicians. The Black Prince attended to him personally. Thus, as new King of France, Philip had to consolidate his power in order to protect his throne from rival claimants; therefore, he decided to marry off his son John quickly at the age of thirteen to form a strong matrimonial alliance, at the same time conferring upon him the title of Duke of Normandy. Il appartient au département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France et se trouve en dépôt au département des peintures du Musée du Louvre. "Sire," Morbecque said. Le « premier portrait » de la peinture occidentale [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. Selon Bernard Dorival cette effigie est un prélude à celles que peindra Jean Fouquet et elle atteste de la persistance de l'esprit monumental dans l'art parisien[2]. John was greeted in London in 1364 with parades and feasts. He died at the Savoy Palace in April 1364. The image of a "warrior king" probably emerged from the courage in battle he showed at the Battle of Poitiers and the creation of the Order of the Star. [citation needed]. Il est le fils du roi Philippe VI et de son épouse Jeanne de Bourgogne. The rebels demanded that Geoffroy be made duke, thus guaranteeing the autonomy granted by the charter. Il fut roi de France de 1350 à 1364, c'est le second souverain issu de la maison capétienne de Valois. portrait (n.m.). Philip VI's ascent to the throne was unexpected: because of the Salic law, all female descendants of his uncle Philip the Fair were passed over; it was also disputed because it bypassed the claim of a closer relative of Philip the Fair, his grandson, Edward III of England. Il succède à son père Philippe VI.En 1356,à la bataille de Poitiers il est battu et fait prisonnier par les Anglais. Portrait de Jean II le Bon, vers 1350, BNF, dépôt Musée du Louvre, Paris. Ce portrait est l'un des premiers portraits peints modernes. King Philip, worried about the richest area of the kingdom breaking into bloodshed, ordered the bailiffs of Bayeux and Cotentin to quell the dispute. He took as his wife Bonne of Bohemia and fathered 11 children in eleven years. John II (French: Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was King of France from 1350 until his death. The following year, on 10 September 1355, John and Charles signed the Treaty of Valognes, but this second peace lasted hardly any longer than the first. Jean II le Bon (1319 - 1364) Jean II est le fils de Philippe VI, et le second roi de la dynastie des Valois directs. Passing the night at Dartford, he continued towards Dover, stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury on 4 July. There is some debate over whether the Black Prince wanted to fight at all. Philip selected Bonne of Bohemia as a wife for his son, as she was closer to child-bearing age (16 years), and the dowry was fixed at 120,000 florins. In 1355, the Hundred Years' War flared up again. Jones, Michael. "The last Capetians and early Valois Kings, 1314-1364", Michael Jones, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_II_of_France&oldid=994514309, French prisoners of war in the Hundred Years' War, Monarchs imprisoned and detained during war, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Margaret (20 September 1347 – 25 April 1352), This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 02:59. Le portrait de Jean II le Bon est un tableau anonyme de 60 × 44,5 cm. A few months after his arrival, however, he fell ill with an unknown malady. John then approached the Tancarville family, whose loyalty could ultimately ensure his authority in Normandy. Cette peinture « sur le vif » représente le duc de Normandie Jean, sacré roi de France sous le nom de Jean II le Bon en 1350. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. Jean II, dit Jean le Bon, est né le 26 avril 1319 au château du Gué de Maulny du Mans , il meurt en captivité à Londres le 8 avril 1364. John reached the age of majority, 13 years and one day, on 27 April 1332, and received overlordship of the duchy of Normandy, as well as the counties of Anjou and Maine. Le peintre pouvait aussi faire partie de la cour avignonnaise de Clément VI qui attira auprès de lui de nombreux artistes italiens. Cependant, il ne s'agit que de simples hypothèses, et il n'est même pas certain que le modèle soit réellement Jean II, l'inscription semblant postérieure à la peinture. Surrounded, he fought on until Denis de Morbecque, a French exile who fought for England, approached him. Cette peinture « sur le vif » représente le duc de Normandie Jean, sacré roi de France sous le nom de Jean II le Bon en 1350. Due to his close relationship with Charles de la Cerda, rumours were spread by Charles II of Navarre of a romantic attachment between the two. Le tableau appartient à la fin du XVIIe siècle au collectionneur Roger de Gaignières, dont la collection entre à la Bibliothèque royale en 1716. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Il n'est donc pas impossible que les Anglais aient vendu ce portrait à la cour de France en prétendant officieusement qu'il s'agirait du roi de France resté outre-Manche. Ce portrait est celui de Jean II Le Bon, roi de France de 1350 à 1364. modifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata. He was then taken to Bordeaux, and from there to England. On 28 July 1332, at the age of 13, John was married to Bonne of Luxembourg (d. 1349), daughter of John, King of Bohemia. To escape the pandemic, John, who was living in the Parisian royal residence, the Palais de la Cité, left Paris. Cette caractérisation du roi passe aussi par son costume : une robe de bure noire (rappelant son rôle de clerc ; il est le chef de l'Eglise en France). Upon his return to France, he created the franc to stabilize the currency and tried to get rid of the free companies by sending them to a crusade, but Pope Innocent VI died shortly before their meeting in Avignon. Le 6e centenaire de la mort de Jean II le Bon, roi de France (1319-1364), né au château du Gué de Maulny. Le peintre faisait peut-être partie de la suite accompagnant le duc de Normandie lors d'une visite rendue au pape en 1349. He grew up among intrigue and treason, and in consequence he governed in secrecy only with a close circle of trusted advisers. 1. description orale ou écrite d'une personne. [2], Tension arose again in 1341. Troubled by the dishonour of this action, and the arrears in his ransom, John did something that shocked and dismayed his people: he announced that he would voluntarily return to captivity in England. Some traces due to the age of the piece, not altering its quality. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. En effet, je n'ai trouvé que peu de sites Internet qui présentaient l'ensemble de ces portraits ; l'information sur ce … Explore portraiture through the ages with sculptures and paintings of emblematic figures such as Caesar and Napoleon, or simply private individuals. The marriage of John, Viscount of Melun, to Jeanne, the only heiress of the county of Tancarville, ensured that the Melun-Tancarville party remained loyal to John, while Geoffroy d'Harcourt continued to act as defender for Norman freedoms and thus of the reforming party.[6]. Fils aîné de Jean II le Bon et de Bonne de Luxembourg, le futur Charles V fut le premier fils de France à porter le titre de dauphin de Viennois, en … 4. action de figurer par l'art. Le Portrait de Jean II le Bon est un tableau anonyme de 60 × 44,5 cm conservé à Paris, au département des peintures du Musée du Louvre. Le personnage a été identifié comme le roi Jean II le Bon (1319-1364), mais nous n’avons aucune certitude sur son identité réelle, l’inscription semblant postérieure à la peinture. From a young age, John was called to resist the decentralising forces affecting the cities and the nobility, each attracted either by English economic influence or the reforming party. The festivities were prolonged by a further two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. Ainsi le fond or, couleur réservée aux figures religieuses et aux personnages de la noblesse de l'époque, donne quelques fondements à cette interprétation. On the day of the Battle of Poitiers, John and 17 knights from his personal guard dressed identically. Son règne est considéré comme l’un des plus mauvais de l’histoire de France ! Consequently, to line up behind one or other sovereign risked confiscation. Jean est de profil, sur un fond entièrement doré. 2. personne qui ressemble à s'y méprendre à une autre. He also promised not to fight against France for seven years. Ce tableau, qui le représente sans couronne, laisse supposer qu'il fut peint avant son accession au trône en 1350. How has the art of portraiture evolved over the years? Une telle représentation s'insérerait tout naturellement dans la ligne de la peinture à intentions politiques qui se mani¬ feste avec éclat dans les tableaux de cette époque, qui ne sont plus connus que par les copies faites pour Gaignières. In spite of this precaution, John was captured. The duchy had not been English for 150 years, but many landowners had holdings across the Channel. [5], By 1345, increasing numbers of Norman rebels had begun to pay homage to Edward III, constituting a major threat to the legitimacy of the Valois kings. John was confident of victory—his army was probably twice the size of his opponent's—but he did not immediately attack. He engaged little in physical activity, practised jousting rarely, and only occasionally hunted. Si la formule classique est employée au travers de la vue de profil du modèle, l'artiste a pourtant un désir d'expressivité. In July 1356, Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, took an army on a great chevauchée through France. Defections by the nobility, whose land fell within the broad economic influence of England, particularly in the north and west, increased. To liberate his father, he concluded the Treaty of Brétigny (1360), by which France lost many territories and paid an enormous ransom. The Treaty of Brétigny was ratified in October 1360. As a prisoner of the English, John was granted royal privileges that permitted him to travel about and enjoy a regal lifestyle. Il n’a de « bon » que son nom ! He was succeeded by his son Charles V. John was nine years old when his father had himself crowned as Philip VI of France. קובץ:14th-century unknown painters - Portrait of Jean le Bon, King of France - WGA23666.jpg מתוך ויקיפדיה, האנציקלופדיה החופשית קפיצה לניווט קפיצה לחיפוש : document utilisé comme source pour la rédaction de cet article. Bohemia had aspirations to control Lombardy and needed French diplomatic support. The Treaty of Brétigny (drafted in May 1360) set his ransom at 3 million crowns. At the time of Le Bon's birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugénic Tétiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. John and Joanna had three children, all of whom died shortly after birth: John II was succeeded by his son, Charles, who reigned as Charles V of France, known as The Wise. A treaty was drawn up. En vérité on doit convenir que l'historique du tableau est encore méconnu, même si le portrait est parfois attribué à Giottino[1] ou à Girard d'Orléans[2]. John suffered from fragile health. John pursued him with an army of his own. Il est réputé pour son tempérament cruel et vindicatif, il n’a en fait que de bon son nom ! Royal troops took the castle at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte and Geoffroy was exiled to Brabant. Cette peinture « sur le vif » représente le roi de France Jean II dit « Le Bon » de profil sur un fond entièrement doré. Le portrait de Jean II le Bon est un tableau anonyme de 60 × 44,5 cm.Il appartient au département des Estampes et de la Photographie de la Bibliothèque nationale de France et se trouve en dépôt au département des peintures du Musée du Louvre.Cette peinture « sur le vif » représente le duc de Normandie Jean, sacré roi de France sous le nom de Jean II le Bon en 1350. Portrait de Jean II le Bon (1319-1364), roi de France (Portrait of king of France John II) Gravure du 19eme siecle Collection privee John II, King of France, (1805).Artist: J Chapman John II, Jean II, Johann II., 1319-1364, also called John the Good or Jean le Bon, King of France John countered by demanding that 100 of the Prince's best knights surrender themselves to him as hostages, along with the Prince himself. No agreement could be reached. Fait prisonnier, il est emmené à Londres. While negotiating a peace accord, John was at first held in the Savoy Palace, then at a variety of locations, including Windsor, Hertford, Somerton Castle in Lincolnshire, Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire, and briefly at King John's Lodge, formerly known as Shortridges, in East Sussex. Three of his companions were decapitated in Paris on 3 April 1344. On shaded laid paper, second half of the 17th century (C 1686). Cette œuvre est le premier portrait individuel conservé depuis l'Antiquité, ce qui lui confère un caractère exceptionnel. Le premier portrait individuel connu après l'Antiquité est celui du roi de France Jean II le Bon, sur bois, de 1349, conservé au musée du Louvre 1.L'artiste inconnu a réussi à traduire la bienveillance du roi, malgré la difficulté technique et artistique à rendre l'expression d'un visage vu de profil. Jean II dit le Bon (Brave) est roi de France de 1350 à 1364. Après le désastre de Poitiers, en 1356, il a été surnommé Jean le Bon en raison de sa bravoure au combat (bon est à prendre au sens de brave ou fougueux). King John surrendered by handing him his glove. Yield yourself to me and I will lead you to the Prince of Wales.". [17] Their children were: On 19 February 1350, at the royal Château de Sainte-Gemme, John married Joanna I of Auvergne (d. 1361), Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne.